anatolia and civilizations > Destinations >History of Cappadocia
 Cappadocia,

It`s the region covering Corum , yozgat, sivas , malatya , kayseri , nevsehir , kirsehir , nigde , aksaray , amasya , tokat , kahramanmaras , adiyaman , adana , konya in present day.

First Datas about cappadocia were  taken from Cuneiform  tablets found in  Kultepe .

Hattis , luvians and hittites were the early settlers in the area.  Many trade colonies were  established by assyrians in 2000 B.C. Hittites founded a great civilization including the cappadocia land .   Trading was smoothly and peacefully  done. Kanis was the trading center of anatolia.

Hittites authority , domination decreased and weakened  in anatolia  through the end of  1000 B.C and  hittites retreated to southeastern anatolia and northern mesopotamia.   Retreating of hittites from cappadocia triggered the battles and conflicts among other states . Phrygians and persians took over the power in a row .

Persians brought to anatolia zoraester religion and pyrolatry .  These beliefs were spreaded in settlements   around  a symbol of these beliefs;  Mount Argaios ( Erciyes mountain) 

Persians deeply effected the cappadocia region and named the land as katpatuka  meaning the land of beautifull horses. 

Damates  the governor of Cappadocia  rised in rebellion againts great persian empire in 372 B.C with other satrapies but the revolt was stopped by persians .  Alexander the great captures the cappadocia in 333 B.C .

Ariarethes  the first also rised in  rebellion against macedonians though  revolt was ceased by generals of Alexander the great.

Romans  dominated the cappadocia region untill 17 A.D. And Roman empire Tiberius  annexed the region and cappadocia became a roman Thema . Caesarea ( kayseri) situated in Cappadocia   was one of the most glorious site of the roman empire .

The ones who had chosen the christianity under the reign of roman empire was punished , tortured , restricted  so the  new  christians  escaped to carved , secret underground cities.

People carved and built  monasteries , chapels , living places in secluded  fairy chimneys and volcanic tuffas.

People lived in secrecy in Goreme , ihlara , soganli valleys .

Byzantium empires got christians turkish people from bulgaria settled in  a land between the mount Hasan and Mount Erciyes.

This Turkish community brought from Bulgaria started to speak a cappadocian greek language as well as the turkish language.

After the islam occured in 7th century ; cappadocia (one of the important christinaty center in christianity period ) invaded by islamic armies and arabs.

Kayseri  and nigde ( Tyana ) was conquered by these islamic armies.

Seldjukians captured the Cappadocia when the roman diojen was the empire of byzantium in 11th century

When the christianty accepted as the official language by byzantium . Cappadocia protected the importance of being a christianity center.

A unique samples of underground cities built in the cappadocia  by local people to be protected by invasions .  All facilities were available in the underground cities for living . grind stones were used to shut  the  corridors connecting the outside . 

Derinkuyu , Kaymakli , Ozkonak , Goztezin  and Konakli underground cities  are the ones discovered untill today.  I especially  recommend  you to visit Derinkuyu  and kaymakli underground cities .

Apart from the underground cities , carved rock chapels , monasteries , seclusion places are available all around cappadocia.

More than 100 chapels and  churches are found in Ihlara valley , zelve , cavusin , urgup , goreme, uchisar , ortahisar , soganli valleys .

Ihlara valley stands out with religious structures and  reliefs .

Other churches to visit and seen are ;

Andaval basilica in aktas village of Nigde built in 6th centuries classical basilica plan.

Virgin mary church in Kayseri- tomarza  call attention  with its architechture

Ucayak church in kirsehir also built only with bricks is another place left from the christianity period.

Comments
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14 Haziran Perşembe, 2012
Name and Surname:
silke heidemann
Message :
Kapadokien
Eines der schönsten Orte der Türkei was die kulturellen Sehenswürdigkeiten betrifft. Kann ich nur jedem empfehlen

1 Mart Perşembe, 2012
Name and Surname:
melany p.
Message :
cappadocia a gift from nature
cappadocia a gift from nature to world. conical shapes called fairy chimneys ocurred in thousands years amazed me with their noble presences.

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